Life Sciences and Agriculture

Teka Commission of Motorization and Power Industry in Agriculture


Teka Commission of Motorization and Power Industry in Agriculture | 2016 | vol. 16 | No 4 |


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-sowing seed stimulation of Thuringian Mallow (Lavatera thuringiaca L.) with He-Ne laser light of different exposure times on the crop yield as well as on energetic parameters such as calorific value and combustion heat. Seeds were subjected to laser light with an exposition time of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes. Measurements were carried out independently on mature plants from the first and second vegetation year. The results varied between the samples, which indicated possible impact of laser radiation on the resultant weight and calorific value of various experimental combinations. For plants from the second vegetation year the statistical differences in calorific value, combustion heat and crop mass were found between samples characterized by different exposition times: between sample irradiated for 30 min (L30) and 1 min (L1) as well as between sample L30 and sample irradiated for 5 minutes (L5). For plants after the first vegetation year the statistically significant differences in calorific value and combustion heat were found for sample with exposition time of 15 minutes (L15) and control sample, for sample L15 and sample L5 as well as between samples L15 and L30. For all the samples from the second vegetation year the increase in combustion heat and calorific values were detected as compared to control. Thus, after the application of certain parameters of laser radiation to the processing of seeds, the plant can be more useful for energetic purposes through more efficient crop.
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Monitoring of the mechanical properties of fruit obtained from cucumber plants is extremely important because of their use in processing, since these properties are reflected by the finished products of processing. Mechanical defects produced at the time of harvesting, during transport and at the specific stages of processing may adversely affect the course of technological processing (brine and vinegar pickling), resulting in spoilt preserves no longer useful for commercial purposes. The study was designed to identify selected mechanical properties in fresh and pickled fruit obtained from field cucumbers during spontaneous fermentation and fermentation promoted by selected lactic bacteria cultures. Additionally, water contents were measured in fresh cucumbers. The findings show significant differences between the analysed parameters.
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The study has identified selected mechanical properties of fresh and stored fruit of large cranberry. The analyses focused on the changes in the values of peel and flesh puncture strength in the selected cranberry varieties depending on water content and storage duration. Measurements were also performed to examine deformations and energy needed to cut through the fruit peel and flesh. The value of breaking stress was calculated. The findings show a decrease in the relevant parameters during storage of fruit obtained from the examined varieties of large cranberry. Mean water contents in the fruit of the relevant varieties were in the range of 86.4-89.1%. There was a notable decrease in the mean value of peel and flesh puncture strength in the fruit of the relevant varieties of large cranberry. The mean value of peel and flesh puncture strength in the fresh fruit of cranberry was 6.1 N, and after 40 days in storage the value decreased by 2.3 N.
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An alternative FEM algorithm of fi nding piston ring pressure distribution to a contact simulation is introduced. The method is basing on an analytical determining of required nodal displacement boundary conditions. Its several confi gurations are tested using APDL and compared to a no-separation contact simulation of a simple 2D fi nite element model of a two-stroke piston ring made of Titanium alloy. Each of the methods tested in the paper brings displacement result and Huber-Misses equivalent stresses close to each other. However, only one of those brings resulting contact pressure close to a no-separation contact simulation. Nonetheless, the obtained confi guration occurred to be less computationally effi cient than no- separation contact simulation performed in an ANSYS software.
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The purpose of this article is to present a new bell type water well construction with circulating treatment and its application. The construction of the water well has been developed and research has been conducted using physical and electrical modelling as well as in the practical field. Researches in this work are of analytical and experimental character. As the results of the research, optimal physical parameters of the constructions have been found and analytical  empirical formulae have been derived to calculate hydraulic parameters. Recommendation for application has been presented. The results received in this work can be used for the application of well construction. Further research is required to improve the physical and the hydraulic parameters of the proposed construction. The work has scientific and practical interest.
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Postharvest processing of grain is an important step in the overall grain production process. It makes possible not only quantitative and qualitative preservation of the harvest, but also ensures maximum profit from its sale at the most favorable market conditions. Convective heat treatment (drying, cooling) guarantees commercial harvest conservation, prevents its loss, and in some cases improves the quality of the finished product. The necessity of intensification and automation of technological processes of postharvest grain processing requires the development of methods of mathematical modeling of energy-intensive processes of convective heat treatment. The determination and substantiation of optimum modes and parameters of equipment operation to ensure the preservation of grain quality is possible only when applying mathematical modeling techniques. In this work, a mathematical model of particulate material drying is presented through a system of differential equations in partial derivatives of which the variable in time and space relationship between heat and mass transfer processes in the material and a drying agent is reflected. The aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of the interrelated fields of unsteady temperature and moisture content of the material and the drying agent on the basis of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer in the layer of particulate material in convective heat approach or heat retraction. The implementation of the mathematical model proposed in the standard mathematical set allows analyzing efficiency of machines and equipment for the convective heat treatment of particulate agricultural materials in a dense layer, according the determinant technological parameters and operating modes.
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The aim of the studies was to evaluate the influence of sowing rate, foliar fertilization (Basfoliar fertilizer 6-12-6) and chemical composition on the mechanical properties of narrow- leaved lupine seeds of cultivars Bojar and Regent. Single seeds were burdened in the direction perpendicular to the parting plane of cotyledons with constant speed 10 mm∙min-1. The crop year and cultivar have significantly differentiated the value of all the analyzed strength parameters of narrow-leaved lupine seeds. The seeds of cultivar Bojar had significantly higher values of all the strength parameters. The designated strength parameters of lupine seeds were negatively correlated with ash content, fiber and protein except for the destructive force. They were also positively correlated with the fat content.
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The formulas have been entered and approved for the calculation of porosity distribution on the thickness of layer of fine-grained mixture during its separation by the inclined flat or vertical cylinder vibro sieves. It has been attained as a result of approximation of tabular information of the obtained numerical computer integration of the specially worked out nonlinear differential equations of the second order in a dimensionless form. For approximation, the function of degree coefficients and index is used for the degrees which are certain by the Aitken's method. Coefficients of the entered analytical dependence are the vibro sieves related to the parameters obtained by mechanical descriptions of the separated material. Coefficients of the entered analytical dependence are related to the parameters of vibro sieves and mechanical descriptions of the separated material. In the case of cylinder vertical vibro sieve the action of centrifugal force is also taken into account. The method of mixture porosity calculation does not need a computer numerical integration of nonlinear differential equations conducted by other authors for solving this problem. Comparison of numerical results of the proposed analytical method of calculation with the ones described in literature, have confirmed its high accuracy results, for the differences do not exceed one percent. The expounded method is universal enough and simple in use, besides it opens the possibilities of subsequent analytical integration of differential equalizations of motion at the calculation of kinematics descriptions of grain flow. The developed method gives the opportunity to also solve the inverse task when, according to experimental measurements of porosity values of grain mixtures on the thickness of movable separated layer, it is needed to find the value of phenomenological permanent that is included in the expressions of coefficients of initial differential equalization. In this way, the adequacy of the mathematical model is improved. The use of approximation of degree considerably simplifies the method of authentication of differential equalization coefficients. In the article, the examples of grain mixture porosity calculation as well as the examples of phenomenological permanent authentication have been resulted after experimental calculations for both the variants of vibro sieves.
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Based on the example of the pilot area in Kiev the influence of the increased static load on the superstructure of the stress-strain state of the slope was studied. The efficiency of the proposed methodology when considering the work of "home-slope-retaining structure" depending on natural and anthropogenic factors was demonstrated.
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In the article the equations have been worked making it possible to model the motion of freerunning grain mixture flow on a flat sloping vibrating sieve within the framework of shallow water theory. Free-running grain mixture is considered as a heterogeneous system consisting of two phases, one of which represents solid particles and the other one gas. The mixture is brought into a state of fluidity by means of high-frequency vibration imposition. Coefficients of internal and external friction and dynamic-viscosity decrease by exponential law as the fluctuation intensity is increased. When considering grain mixture dynamics, the following assumptions are put forward: we ignore the air presence in space between particles, we consider the density of particles to be constant, the free-running mixture is similar to Newtonian liquid. The basic system of equations of grain mixture dynamics is due to the laws of continuum mechanics. The equation of continuity is issued from the law of conservation of mass, and the dynamic equations are issued from the law of variation of momentum. The stress tensor equals to the sum of the equilibrium tensor and the dissipative tensor. The equilibrium part of the stress tensor is represented by the spherical tensor, which is found to conform to Pascal law for liquids, and the dissipative part, which is responsible for viscous force effect and defined by Navier-Stokes law. Boundary conditions on the surfaces (restricting the capacity of the free-running grain mixture) have been researched. The distributions of apparent density and velocity field are assigned at the inlet and outlet flow sections of the mixture. The normal velocity component of the grain mixture on the side frames and on the sieve becomes zero, which meets the no-fluid-loss condition of the medium through the frame. Beyond that point at this time we satisfy dynamic conditions, which characterize the mixture sliding down the hard frame, motion flow resistance force is represented as average velocity linear dependence. A kinematic condition and two dynamic ones are stipulated on the free surface layer. One of the conditions states mass flow continuity across the free surface, the other one states the stress continuity while passing through the free surface. The basic premise of planned motion equations is the condition of small size of flow depth in comparison with its width. With the use of shallow water theory the basic principles of the equations of flow dynamics are simplified and for their solving a Cauchy problem can be set.
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During studying and mathematical description of the trends of urbanized territories development as ecological and town-planning systems there were several vague similarities founded between its major parameters change periodicity and other physical values, having undulatory nature. Obtained counterparts had predetermined interest for search of fundamental basics of urbanization. It turned out that all laws of Nature has the same basis – power permanence rule. This law is known in philosophy as principle of «change of unchangeable», in ecology – as a law of ecosystem self-regulation, in accordance to which at conditions of insufficient occupancy of the territory the population amount growths, and at conditions of over-occupancy it decreases. According to research, also development attributable to the dynamics of urbanized territories is noticeable, in which all the four types of physical interactions are expressed to a certain degree. These and other results of research have allowed to articulate the main principles of ecological space «urban physics» content, which have proven to be coordinated with the postulates of new single field physics (Bishkek version). The above-mentioned have allowed to lay down the theoretical foundation for an occurrence of a new branch in the science of townplanning i.e. wave urbanistics, as a science of management by unduly processes of territories development in order to provide a conditions of their sustainable development.
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The aim of the study was to determine the effect of adding bio-components in the form of methyl esters of corn oil to the milesPLUS diesel oil on its fractional composition. The corn biofuel was produced in-house by using an own-design GW-200 reactor. The diesel fuel evaporated at temperatures ranging from 162 to 352oC. The addition of 7, 20 and 40% of a bio-component in principle does not affect the deterioration of the starting point distillation temperatures. They affect the temperature at the end of distillation to a greater extent, resulting in temperatures exceeding 360oC.
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In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
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The current hypotheses of water structure and influence of the magnetic field on the change in its structure have been analyzed. The hypotheses of the feasibility of using high-frequency electromagnetic fields to enhance their impact on the water structure and the stability of this process have been formulated. Experimental studies on using water treated in high-frequency electromagnetic fields for eco-concrete production have been carried out.
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Editorial office

President of editorial and scientific committee
Redaktor naczelny:
prof. Eugeniusz Krasowski

Zbigniew Burski

Editorial committee  

Jan Glinski, Karol Cupial, Aleksandr Dashchenko, Sergiey Fedorkin,
Oleksandr Holubenko, Anatoliy Yakovenko, Janusz Laskowski,
Jerzy Merkisz, Ryszard Michalski, Aleksandr Morozow, Janusz Myslowski, Ilya Nikolenko,
Pawel Nosko, Stanislaw Niziiiski, Marek Opielak, Marek Rozmus, Wolodymyr Snitynskiy

Scientific committee

Andrzej Ambmzik, Kielce, Poland Volodymyr Bulgakow, Kiev, Ukraine Kazimierz Dreszer, Lublin, Poland Bohdan Hevko, Ternopil, Ukraine Marek Idzior, Poznan, Poland L.P.B.M. Jonssen, Groningen, Holland Elzbieta Kusinska, Lublin, Poland Jozef Kowalczuk, Lublin, Poland Stepan Kovalyshyn, Lwow, Ukraine Nikolaj Lubomirski, Simferopol, Ukraine Kazimierz Lejda, Rzeszow, Poland Leszek Moscicki, Lublin, Poland Ignace Niedziolka, Lublin, Poland Valery Diadychev, Lugansk, Ukraine     Juriy Osenin, Lugansk, Ukraine Janusz Nowak, Lublin, Poland Sergiey Pastushenko, Kherson, Ukraine Jozef Sawa, Lublin, Poland Ludvikas Spokas, Kaunas, Lithuania Povilas A. Sirvydas, Kaunas, Lithuania Stanisiaw Sosnowski, Rzeszow, Poland Aleksandr Sydorchuk, Lw6w, Ukraine Georgij Tayanowski, Minsk, Belarus Wojciech Tanas, Lublin, Poland Henryk Tylicki, Bydgoszcz, Poland Danis Viesturs, Ulbrok, Latvia Dmytro Voytiuk, Kiev, Ukraine Janusz Wojdalski, Warszawa, Poland Bogdan Zoltowski, Bydgoszcz, Poland


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